The Russian government? The Cuban government? A rogue Cuban faction sympathetic to Moscow? And, if so, where did the attackers get the unconventional arms? At his home outside Washington, Mr. Frey, the scientist who uncovered the neural phenomenon, said federal investigators have questioned him on the diplomatic riddle and that microwave radiation is considered a possible cause. Frey, now 83, has traveled widely and long served as a contractor and a consultant to a number of federal agencies. Microwaves are ubiquitous in modern life.
The short radio waves power radars, cook foods, relay messages and link cellphones to antenna towers. While radio broadcasting can employ waves a mile or more in length, microwaves range in size from roughly a foot to a tiny fraction of an inch. But their diminutive size also enables tight focusing, as when dish antennas turn disorganized rays into concentrated beams. The dimensions of the human head, scientists say , make it a fairly good antenna for picking up microwave signals.
A man who measured radar signals at a nearby G. Intrigued, Mr. Each lobe bears a small region — the auditory cortex — that processes nerve signals from the outer and inner ears. Investigators raced to confirm and extend Mr. At first they named the phenomenon after him, but eventually called it the microwave auditory effect and, in time, more generally, radio-frequency hearing.
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The Soviets took notice. Not long after his initial discoveries, Mr. Frey said, he was invited by the Soviet Academy of Sciences to visit and lecture. Toward the end, in a surprise, he was taken outside Moscow to a military base surrounded by armed guards and barbed-wire fences. Frey recalled. Moscow was so intrigued by the prospect of mind control that it adopted a special terminology for the overall class of envisioned arms, calling them psychophysical and psychotronic.
Zaid said a N. In Albuquerque, N. Their novel approach won a patent in , and an update in The Navy sought to paralyze.
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The Frey effect was to induce sounds powerful enough to cause painful discomfort and, if needed, leave targets unable to move. In a twist, the contract was awarded to microwave experts who had emigrated to the United States from Russia and Ukraine. It is unknown if Washington deploys such arms. But the Pentagon built a related weapon known as the Active Denial System, hailing it in a video.
It fires an invisible beam meant to deter mobs and attackers with fiery sensations. Russia, China and many European states are seen as having the know-how to make basic microwave weapons that can debilitate, sow noise or even kill. Only intelligence agencies know which nations actually possess and use such unfamiliar arms. The basic weapon might look like a satellite dish. In theory, such a device might be hand-held or mounted in a van, car, boat or helicopter. Microwave arms are seen as typically working over relatively short distances — across the length of a few rooms or blocks.
Georges Terrier et Christophe Perchet sont des figures incontournables du barreau. Le cabinet traite de nombreux contentieux bancaires, financiers, de fusions-acquisitions et des conflits entre actionnaires. Le cabinet est en charge de nombreux contentieux sur les TEG pour le compte de banques.
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Ben Pugsley Avocat - Colombie Britannique voir le profil. Marc-Antoine L. Fortin Avocat voir le profil. Kimberley Okell Avocate voir le profil. Judith Lemieux-Poliquin Parajuriste voir le profil. Vanessa Vogel Parajuriste voir le profil. Michel Hudon Avocat voir le profil. We will come back to this later.
For now we will simply note that during the parliamentary debates, few divisions or differences of opinion were expressed with regard to this view of publicness or any other aspects of the proposal: the prohibition seems to have been the object of consensus among lawmakers across political parties. And in the case of the felony courts, this law gave trial judges the power to have sound recordings made that would be placed under seal and, if necessary, could be used in the future.
It is still possible to make such sound recordings, but only some of the courtrooms in the felony courts about half in have been fitted with recording equipment. This possibility has therefore never become a reality, which one defender of the law in fact regrets Badinter and Wievorka, Thus several French documentaries were made and shown by television stations and in movie theatres.
Since any authorization they receive is an exception, it is subject to discretion at every level of the system and can be revoked depending on the context. In the legal domain uncertainty reigns. During this period, Bodin, as a public figure, as the man responsible for the city of Laon, as a well-known authority on constitutional rights, and as a private citizen, was obligated to define publicly his political positions.
The Letter by Jean Bodin in which he discuss the reasons why he became a member of the League Lettre Bodin , of January 20, , published in Paris, Lyons, Toulouse, and Brussels, is clearly a masterpiece of political analysis once it is properly framed within its historical context. The work continues to be discussed and disparaged by historians and biographers of Bodin. Some would say that Bodin was forced to change his political position, but this is not the case; rather, great changes had occurred in the historical reality.
In effect, the royalists and the League had had similar views regarding concord, the survival of political institutions, and the Gallic State.
They disagreed however about the means to achieve their objectives, most notably how quickly to go to war against the Huguenots, the excessive power of the Duke de Guise which diminished the authority of the king and the interference of the pope and Spain. On these points Bodin, as a loyal officer of the king, kept his distance from the League.
At that time the changes were so distressing that Bodin believed it was necessary to explain publicly the new circumstances in which France and the French found themselves. Examining the general situation of the warring factions, Bodin expresses himself frankly.
He knew how to judge one of the most complex moments in French history clearly and without partisanship. By analyzing how he reaches his opinions, we can better understand his ideas. They absolutely cannot agree by speaking together. Outside of the kingdom, they were even more powerful and counted in their alliance: England, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, the four Swiss cantons, and the Protestant princes of Germany. Unfortunately he received bad advice from those who today carry arms and who belong to the opposing party.