A Tributary and a Mainstream: Gender, Public Memory and the Historiography of Nazi Germany
Frank's diary began as a private expression of her thoughts; she wrote several times that she would never allow anyone to read it. She candidly described her life, her family and companions, and their situation, while beginning to recognize her ambition to write fiction for publication. In March , she heard a radio broadcast by Gerrit Bolkestein —a member of the Dutch government in exile , based in London —who said that when the war ended, he would create a public record of the Dutch people's oppression under German occupation.
She began editing her writing, removing some sections and rewriting others, with a view to publication. Her original notebook was supplemented by additional notebooks and loose-leaf sheets of paper. She created pseudonyms for the members of the household and the helpers. In this edited version, she addressed each entry to "Kitty," a fictional character in Cissy van Marxveldt 's Joop ter Heul novels that Anne enjoyed reading.
Otto Frank used her original diary, known as "version A", and her edited version, known as "version B", to produce the first version for publication. He removed certain passages, most notably those in which Anne is critical of her parents especially her mother , and sections that discussed Frank's growing sexuality.
Although he restored the true identities of his own family, he retained all of the other pseudonyms. Otto Frank gave the diary to the historian Annie Romein-Verschoor , who tried unsuccessfully to have it published. She then gave it to her husband Jan Romein , who wrote an article about it, titled "Kinderstem" "A Child's Voice" , which was published in the newspaper Het Parool on 3 April He wrote that the diary "stammered out in a child's voice, embodies all the hideousness of fascism, more so than all the evidence at Nuremberg put together.
It was first published in Germany and France in , and after being rejected by several publishers, was first published in the United Kingdom in The book was successful in France, Germany, and the United States, but in the United Kingdom it failed to attract an audience and by was out of print. Its most noteworthy success was in Japan, where it received critical acclaim and sold more than , copies in its first edition.
In Japan, Anne Frank quickly was identified as an important cultural figure who represented the destruction of youth during the war. It was followed by the film The Diary of Anne Frank , which was a critical and commercial success. It includes comparisons from all known versions, both edited and unedited. It includes discussion asserting the diary's authentication, as well as additional historical information relating to the family and the diary itself. Center for Holocaust Education Foundation —announced in that he was in the possession of five pages that had been removed by Otto Frank from the diary prior to publication; Suijk claimed that Otto Frank gave these pages to him shortly before his death in The missing diary entries contain critical remarks by Anne Frank about her parents' strained marriage and discuss Frank's lack of affection for her mother.
The Netherlands Institute for War Documentation, the formal owner of the manuscript, demanded the pages be handed over. Since then, they have been included in new editions of the diary. The diary has been praised for its literary merits. Commenting on Anne Frank's writing style, the dramatist Meyer Levin commended Frank for "sustaining the tension of a well-constructed novel",  and was so impressed by the quality of her work that he collaborated with Otto Frank on a dramatization of the diary shortly after its publication.
The poet John Berryman called the book a unique depiction, not merely of adolescence but of the "conversion of a child into a person as it is happening in a precise, confident, economical style stunning in its honesty". In her introduction to the diary's first American edition, Eleanor Roosevelt described it as "one of the wisest and most moving commentaries on war and its impact on human beings that I have ever read. Kennedy discussed Anne Frank in a speech, and said, "Of all the multitudes who throughout history have spoken for human dignity in times of great suffering and loss, no voice is more compelling than that of Anne Frank.
As Anne Frank's stature as both a writer and humanist has grown, she has been discussed specifically as a symbol of the Holocaust and more broadly as a representative of persecution. Primo Levi suggested Anne Frank is frequently identified as a single representative of the millions of people who suffered and died as she did because "One single Anne Frank moves us more than the countless others who suffered just as she did but whose faces have remained in the shadows.
Das Mädchen Anne Frank : die Biographie (Book, ) [swilardiecyc.tk]
Perhaps it is better that way; if we were capable of taking in all the suffering of all those people, we would not be able to live. Anne cannot, and should not, stand for the many individuals whom the Nazis robbed of their lives But her fate helps us grasp the immense loss the world suffered because of the Holocaust.
Otto Frank spent the remainder of his life as custodian of his daughter's legacy, saying, "It's a strange role. In the normal family relationship, it is the child of the famous parent who has the honour and the burden of continuing the task. In my case the role is reversed. This was the impact of the Holocaust, this was a family like my family, like your family and so you could understand this. He writes, "The reason for her immortality was basically literary.
She was an extraordinarily good writer, for any age, and the quality of her work seemed a direct result of a ruthlessly honest disposition. In , Fria ord "Free Words" , the magazine of the Swedish neofascist organization National League of Sweden published an article by Danish author and critic Harald Nielsen, who had previously written antisemitic articles about the Danish-Jewish author Georg Brandes.
In , at a performance of The Diary of Anne Frank in Vienna, Simon Wiesenthal was challenged by a group of protesters who asserted that Anne Frank had never existed, and who challenged Wiesenthal to prove her existence by finding the man who had arrested her. Wiesenthal indeed began searching for Karl Silberbauer and found him in When interviewed, Silberbauer admitted his role, and identified Anne Frank from a photograph as one of the people arrested. Silberbauer provided a full account of events, even recalling emptying a briefcase full of papers onto the floor.
His statement corroborated the version of events that had previously been presented by witnesses such as Otto Frank. The court examined the diary in and authenticated the handwriting as matching that in letters known to have been written by Anne Frank. They declared the diary to be genuine. Stielau recanted his earlier statement, and Otto Frank did not pursue the case any further. In , Otto Frank took action against Heinz Roth of Frankfurt, who published pamphlets stating that the diary was "a forgery". The judge ruled that if Roth was to publish any further statements he would be subjected to a fine of , German marks and a six-month jail sentence.
Roth appealed against the court's decision. He died in , and after a year his appeal was rejected. When a man named Edgar Geiss distributed the same pamphlet in the courtroom, he too was prosecuted.
Anne Frank: The Biography by Melissa Müller
The sentence of Geiss was reduced on appeal, and the case was eventually dropped following a subsequent appeal because the time limit for filing a libel case had expired. With Otto Frank's death in , the original diary, including letters and loose sheets, was willed to the Dutch Institute for War Documentation,  which commissioned a forensic study of the diary through the Netherlands Ministry of Justice in They examined the handwriting against known examples and found that they matched.
They determined that the paper, glue, and ink were readily available during the time the diary was said to have been written. They concluded that the diary is authentic, and their findings were published in what has become known as the "Critical Edition" of the diary. Purported evidence, as before, included several contradictions in the diary, that the prose style and handwriting were not those of a teenager, and that hiding in the Achterhuis would have been impossible.
In , the Amsterdam District Court ruled in favour of the claimants, forbade any further denial of the authenticity of the diary and unsolicited distribution of publications to that effect, and imposed a penalty of 25, guilders per infringement. An unabridged edition of Anne Frank's work was published in On 3 May , a group of citizens, including Otto Frank, established the Anne Frank Stichting in an effort to rescue the Prinsengracht building from demolition and to make it accessible to the public. The Anne Frank House opened on 3 May It consists of the Opekta warehouse and offices and the Achterhuis , all unfurnished so that visitors can walk freely through the rooms.
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Some personal relics of the former occupants remain, such as movie star photographs glued by Anne to a wall, a section of wallpaper on which Otto Frank marked the height of his growing daughters, and a map on the wall where he recorded the advance of the Allied Forces , all now protected behind acrylic glass. From the small room which was once home to Peter van Pels, a walkway connects the building to its neighbours, also purchased by the Foundation.
These other buildings are used to house the diary, as well as rotating exhibits that chronicle aspects of the Holocaust and more contemporary examinations of racial intolerance around the world. One of Amsterdam's main tourist attractions, it received a record , visitors in The House provides information via the internet and offers exhibitions that in travelled to 32 countries in Europe, Asia, North America, and South America. The Fonds raises money to donate to causes "as it sees fit". Upon his death, Otto willed the diary's copyright to the Fonds, on the provision that the first 80, Swiss francs in income each year was to be distributed to his heirs.
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Any income above this figure is to be retained by the Fonds for use on whatever projects its administrators considered worthy. It provides funding for the medical treatment of the Righteous Among the Nations on a yearly basis. The Fonds aims to educate young people against racism, and loaned some of Anne Frank's papers to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington for an exhibition in Its annual report that year outlined its efforts to contribute on a global level, with support for projects in Germany, Israel, India, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Centre is "a place where both young people and adults can learn about the history of National Socialism and discuss its relevance to today. The Merwedeplein apartment, where the Frank family lived from until , remained privately owned until the s. After becoming the focus of a television documentary, the building—in a serious state of disrepair—was purchased by a Dutch housing corporation. Aided by photographs taken by the Frank family and descriptions in letters written by Anne Frank, it was restored to its s appearance.
It opened in Each year, a writer who is unable to write freely in his or her own country is selected for a year-long tenancy, during which they reside and write in the apartment. The first writer selected was the Algerian novelist and poet El-Mahdi Acherchour.
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Anne Frank is included as one of the topics in the Canon of Dutch History , which was prepared by a committee headed by Frits van Oostrom and presented to the Minister of Education, Culture and Science, Maria van der Hoeven , in ; the Canon is a list of fifty topics that aims to provide a chronological summary of Dutch history to be taught in primary schools and the first two years of secondary school in the Netherlands.
A revised version, which still includes her as one of the topics, was presented to the Dutch government on 3 October Among the artefacts are Frank family photographs taken in Germany and the Netherlands and the letter Otto Frank sent his mother in , informing her that his wife and daughters had perished in Nazi concentration camps. In November , the Anne Frank tree —by then infected with a fungal disease affecting the tree trunk—was scheduled to be cut down to prevent it from falling on the surrounding buildings.